Coffee Basics – Types of coffee beans

Given the huge variety of coffee trees, to classify them is difficult. Of all the impressive list of culinary art value are only four. Grains of those plants grown in different parts of the globe, use to prepare coffee drinks.

Coffee Beands on a tree
Coffee Beans ripening on a tree


It should be noted that the types of coffee and coffee – these are two different concepts. Types of coffee – plants, and varieties of different cultivars and hybrids obtained as a result of selection with inherent only to them useful or decorative characteristics, such as Caturra (Bud mutation of Coffea arabica var. burbon), Maragogype (Bud mutation of Coffea arabica var. typica), etc.

At the same time, the concept of “type” is more succinct and is used to denote the range of coffees available on the market.

For the preparation of aromatic drinks using grains of several Botanical species of trees. What types of coffee are:


This is the most popular species Coffea Arabica or Coffee tree of Arabia, its kernels have a deep complex bouquet of taste and aroma.

The plant is very capricious, require special climatic conditions for growing – mountain plateaus or slopes of volcanoes. It prefers a climate with sharp temperature variations between day and night indicators. The biggest enemy of the Arabica and winter frosts. The annual volume of harvest that can be obtained per plant is 5 kg, this number of turns not more than 1 kg of grains of natural coffee.

Black Arabika and Robusta

Black arabica and robusta

Unlike other types of beans Arabica longer and smoother, it includes less caffeine, and finished the drink has a pleasant sour taste. One of the stages of preparation of the crop is treated with water. Arabica is most often used as monosort.

Note: the Arabica, and there are approximately 50 pieces, accounted for 70% of the total coffee produced in the world.


Tree Kanefora Robusta or Coffea Canephora was first discovered in Africa, on the coast of the Congo. A distinctive feature of the grain – high content of caffeine, which gives a distinctive bitterness. That is why the product is suitable for the preparation of fairly strong coffee blends. From the point of view of the culinary arts Robusta are less valuable than Arabica, therefore, the production volume of grains of this species does not exceed 30%.

Robusta coffee trees prefer a tropical climate, the main growing areas of East and Central Africa, Brazil.

They don’t bloom as often as the Arabica, and ripening is required 10 months. Crop treated by the dry method without using water. The grains are small in size and characteristic spots on both sides of the separating grooves.

Note: Robusta does not apply as monoortho, and is a component of coffee blends. Its the best varieties produced in Uganda and Zaire.


Among professionals, the plant is known under the name of Coffee tree Coffea Liberica, or Liberian. Despite the fact that this type of coffee is considered the third most important in the world, the product is practically not export, and is used mainly in regions where it is grown. This selectivity is due to the incredible whimsical plants. The trees are grown mainly on the African continent.

Tasting notes liberty – sharp, bitter taste that is why to create coffee drinks pure bean this type is not used – add an exquisite touch to the blends. Liberica gives the mixture a strong aroma, which in this species is even more intense than those of Arabica.

Coffee Map

The excelsa

This is the rarest kind of coffee, is High since the plants in the wild can grow up to 20 meters.

Note: best grade excelsa recognized as the world’s “soft Columbian” for their unmatched features – a rich taste, the highest quality grains and rich aroma. Beans of this coffee are hand, each stage of processing and manufacturing natural raw materials to prepare the drink carefully controlled.

Classification of coffee

To say with absolute certainty how today’s world there are varieties, very difficult. Range of coffee is broad, because the product is classified according to many criteria, respectively, differ in grain taste, richness of flavor and price. The coffee varieties are determined by the following criteria:

  • country of origin;
  • the name of the port from which to transport product;
  • at the sight of the tree;
  • the name of the plantation where trees are grown;
  • the name of the specific geographic point where plants are grown;
  • in accordance with the international classification;
  • the commercial name.
Coffee Berries
Close up red berries coffee beans on agriculturist hand

Classification of grain quality

  • elite varieties of coffee are labeled AA and A;
  • good coffee – marking AB;
  • grain – medium quality- labelling and VA;
  • poor quality grain – marking BB and C.

Classification according to geographical origin

  • grain from the highlands – SHG (Strictly High Grown);
  • grain grown in the foothills — HG (High Grown);
  • grain grown on the plains — CS (Central Standard).
  • very firm grain — SHB (Strictly Hard Bean);
  • solid grain — HB (Hard Bean).

Classification by processing grains

  • AP (American preparation) – preparation of the methodology – each 300 grams of raw materials and remove no more than 23 defects;
  • EP (European preparation) – preparation for the European procedure – each 300 grams of the raw material and remove not more than 8 defects.

Classification according to the degree of grinding

If you choose a ready brewed coffee powder, it is important to choose wisely the product in accordance with the recipe. There are several degrees of grinding beans.

Grinding Name:FeatureExtraction time (speed of preparation of the drink)

Coarse grindUsed for cooking in the coffee maker is piston type

6 to 8 minutes
Medium grindCoffee this grind is versatile, raw materials suitable for making any drinks in any way

4 to 6 minutes
Fine grindUsed coffee makers with filters

From 1 to 4 minutes
Fine espresso grindUsed in espresso machines

Not more than 4 minutes
PulverizedThis powder grinding suitable for preparing Turkish coffee 7 to 10 minutes

The most popular varieties in the world


The most popular is Arabica, Bribery Australia (Australia Arabica Skyberry). This variety appeared in the world recently, but has already won the hearts of gourmets around the world because of its quality in many ways reminiscent of favorite, expensive drink of the British Royal family is Jamaican blue mountain (Blue Mountain). Tasting notes – mild flavor with a tart note.


  • Arabica Yemen Mocha Mattari (Arabica Yemen Mocha Mattari). For many centuries the true wealth of the Yemen was considered to be spices, incense, and a special kind of coffee – mocha mattari. The name of the product comes from the area where plants are grown. It is this variety first appeared on the territory of Russia and its happy drinking European monarchs, that the drink became known as the “coffee of lords”. Mocha has a unique taste – it is easily recognizable by its slight acidity, pleasant chocolate aftertaste. This is one of the most popular monosort coffee.
  • India Robusta Coffee Cherry (Robusta India Cherry).This Robusta has an incredibly rich aroma and quite bitter taste with a slight acidity. As monosort it’s not used, but is often added to coffee mixtures.

Note: a large popular varieties — Arabica India ManSound Malabar, is recognized as the most expensive coffee Indonesia Arabica Kopi Luwak, another variation of the famous blue mountain Arabica Papua-New Guinea PB.

Arabica South America

  • Brazil Santos (Arabica Brazil Santos). The drink has a rich, fairly strong taste with a slight acidity and a hint of spice. If you don’t like exotics, but I prefer the classic coffee, choose this variety.
  • Colombia Supremo (Colombia Arabica Supremo). The name means – great. Drink fully justifies its title, is a gentle, velvety taste, slightly sweet with a little wine acidity.

Central America

  • Arabica Guatemala Maragogype (Arabica Guatemala Maragogype). Different sharp taste and a slightly smoky aroma. The beverage is prized for saturation and rich flavor bouquet with floral and fruity notes.
  • Arabica Guatemala Antigua (Guatemala Arabica Antigua). Its distinctive bitterness and notes of plum, the finish is light, citrus with spicy chocolate notes. This variety choose foodies on different continents.


The most popular varieties of Arabica:

  1. AA Burundi (Burundi Arabica AA);
  2. Kenya (Kenya Arabica);
  3. Ethiopia Sidamo (Ethiopia Arabica Sidamo).

Given that the cultivation of coffee is produced on many continents, it’s safe to say how many flavors there are so many varieties of this beverage.

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